Obtaining Polish citizenship by virtue of the law
Poland uses the right of blood rule, under which citizenship is obtained by being born to parents (or a parent) bearing the citizenship of the given country. Therefore, a child born to parents (or a parent) with Polish citizenship automatically (i.e. by virtue of the law) obtains Polish citizenship irrespective of the country it was born in (article 14 item 1).
Some countries use the right of soil rule (a child born on the territory of the given country obtains its citizenship by virtue of the law).
In Poland (in accordance with article 14 item 2 and article 15 of the act on Polish citizenship) a child born or found on the territory of the Republic of Poland obtains Polish citizenship by virtue of the law if both of its parents:
- are unknown,
- have no citizenship, or
- their citizenship is indeterminate.
Foreigners obtain Polish citizenship by virtue of the law if they were adopted (i.e. adopted completely within the meaning of article 1191 and the following articles of the Family and Guardianship Code) by a person (or persons) with Polish citizenship. It is assumed that the foreigner obtained Polish citizenship on his or her date of birth if the above-mentioned adoption took place before his or her 16th birthday (article 16 of the act on Polish citizenship).
Polish citizenship may also be obtained under the act on repatriation by persons of Polish descent who have been considered repatriates.